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America, circa 1880 to 1910

Tonalism is a style of painting in which landscapes are depicted in soft light and shadows, often as if through a colored or misty veil. Imported to the U.S. by American painters inspired by Barbizon School landscapes, it was a forerunner to the many schools and colonies of American Impressionism which arose in the first part of the 20th century.
The most influential practitioners of the style were George Inness, whose roots were in landscape painting, and James McNeill Whistler, whose approach was primarily aesthetic, aiming for elegance and harmony in the colors of a painting.
Tonalism's soft-edged realism also had an influence on the photography of the early 20th century - specifically on Alfred Stieglitz and his circle.

Chronological Listing of Abstract Expressionists
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George Fuller 1822-1884 American Painter
William Morris Hunt 1824-1879 American Painter
George Inness 1825-1894 American Painter
James McNeill Whistler 1834-1903 American Painter/Printmaker
John La Farge 1835-1910 American Painter
Homer Dodge Martin 1836-1897 American Painter
Alexander Helwig Wyant 1836-1892 American Painter
Maria A'Becket 1840-1904 American Painter
Robert Swain Gifford 1840-1905 American Painter
John J. Enneking 1841-1916 American Painter
Ralph Albert Blakelock 1847-1919 American Painter
Albert Pinkham Ryder 1847-1917 American Painter
Charles Melville Dewey 1849-1937 American Painter
Dwight W. Tryon 1849-1925 American Painter
Charles Harry Eaton 1850-1901 American Painter
Thomas Wilmer Dewing 1851-1938 American Painter
Ben Foster 1852-1926 American Painter
Gertrude Kasebier 1852-1934 American Photographer
Julian Alden Weir 1852-1919 American Painter
T. Alexander Harrison 1853-1930 American Painter
John Francis Murphy 1853-1921 American Painter
John Henry Twachtman 1853-1902 American Painter
Lowell Birge Harrison 1854-1929 American Painter
Leonard Ochtman 1854-1934 Dutch/American Painter
Charles Harold Davis 1856-1933 American Painter
Franklin de Haven 1856-1934 American Painter
Charles Appel 1857-1928 American Painter
Bruce Crane 1857-1937 American Painter
Charles Warren Eaton 1857-1937 American Painter
Henry Ward Ranger 1858-1916 American Painter
Elliott Daingerfield 1859-1932 American Painter
William Langson Lathrop 1859-1938 American Painter
Charles Paul Gruppe 1860-1940 Canadian/American Painter
Arthur Frank Mathews 1860-1945 American Painter
Karl Emil Termohlen 1863-1938 Danish/American Painter
Alfred Stieglitz 1864-1946 American Photographer
Leon Dabo 1865-1960 French/American Painter
Louis Paul Dessar 1867-1952 American Painter
Chauncey F. Ryder 1868-1949 American Painter
Henry Percy Gray 1869-1952 American Painter
Xavier Martinez 1869-1943 Mexican/American Painter
Granville Redmond 1871-1935 American Painter
Clarence H. White 1871-1925 American Photographer
Aaron Harry Gorson 1872-1933 American Painter
Max Meldrum 1875-1955 Scottish/Australian Painter
Edward J. Steichen 1879-1973 Luxembourgeois/American Photographer/Painter
Alvin Langdon Coburn 1882-1966 American/British Photographer
Imogen Cunningham 1883-1976 American Photographer
Laura Gilpin 1891-1979 American Photographer



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